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Coming to a Street Near You...

Serge Stroobandt (ON4AA) on June 4, 2017
View comments about this article!

Coming to a street near you…

Here is an excerpt from an EMC Committee proposal I wrote for the upcoming 2017 IARU Region 1 conference. Even though this strictly concerns Region 1, I gathered this might as well interest folks over the pond in Regions 2 & 3 who may be facing similar EMI issues…

73 de Serge, ON4AA
http://hamwaves.com/propagation/

In many European countries, utility companies are replacing at a fast pace traditional orange sodium-vapour lamps with more efficient, white light, metal-halide high intensity discharge (HID) street lighting fixtures.

Unlike sodium-vapour lamps, metal-halide HID gas discharge lamps require a high voltage power supply1 —called electronic ballast— that is typically a couple of kilovolt switched at 100–400 Hz with a square wave pattern.2 Unlike fluorescent lamps, high-frequency operation does not increase metal-halide HID lamp efficiency.1 Metal-halide HID lamps could operate equally well from a 50 Hz inductive ballast. However, because of higher resistive losses, an inductive ballast is most often discarded in favour of an electronic ballast.1

Figure 1: Metal-halide HID street lights can take on many appearances. Sources: Philips Indal & Wikipedia

Figure 1: Metal-halide HID street lights can take on many appearances. Sources: Philips Indal & Wikipedia

HID street lighting may produce electromagnetic interference (EMI) in several ways. In most HID EMI cases, the electrical ballast is mounted next to the lamp, but suffers poor input filtering/line conditioning. This allows for harmonics of the switched square wave to propagate as a common mode signal along the mains power line. The mains network will radiate this RF energy wherever the mains power cable is not deeply buried into the ground or not shielded by a conductive lighting post. By consequence, direction finding techniques may often fail at pointing out the HID electrical ballast as the interference source. However, when the noise coincides with the period when the street lights are on, little doubt will remain about the true origin of the QRM.

Street lights may also be retrofitted with an electrical ballast mounted at the foot of the lighting post, several meters below the actual HID lamp.3 If this is the case, the load lines towards the HID lamp will couple common mode harmonic RF energy onto the conductive lighting post. The conductive lighting post will radiate this RF energy by acting as a vertical antenna of almost ideal length for HF.

At least one electrical ballast manufacturer prides itself for making grounding of its electrical ballasts optional.3 This of course, renders any attempt at common mode input filtering futile.

Whereas LED light bulbs with noisy switched power supplies involve at most a couple of watts of switched power, the switched power levels of HID street lights are typically several hundred watts up to a few kilowatts. If EMI problems occur with HID electrical ballasts, these tend to be far more serious than the typical switched LED bulb interference.

Several European radio amateur operators —including the author of this proposal— have experienced severe cases of EMI over the entirety of the LF, MF and HF bands caused by metal-halide HID street light electrical ballasts.

A particularly well documented case4 that includes video and audio material5 is that of David Gregory, G0SLV from Blackpool; first reported in May 2016. David’s HID EMI issue has not been resolved, mainly because the UK’s regulatory telecommunications authority Ofcom does not have any adequate enforcement strategy in place.6

Such is the December 2016 case of the author of this proposal, which involves occasional tapping during festivities of the mains, from wall outlets mounted on top of the lighting posts. This resulted in a continuous 59+15dB burst noise on 80 and 40m.

Strikingly ironic is the case of Dutch utility provider Liander that failed in using power line signalling to switch its new HID street lights. According to a news report, hundreds of power line signalling boards had to be replaced with real time clocks.7 Even worse, the utility provider never happened to understand that the electrical ballasts of its new HID lamps were interfering with the power line signalling circuitry. In such, utility provider Liander is not an isolated case. The author’s utility provider Infrax is also hard-pressed to understand that HID electrical ballasts may cause radio interference when installed improperly.

The fast paced adoption of HID street light technology by utility providers all over Europe, may well be the number one contributing factor to raising background noise levels on the HF band; even more so than switched power supply consumer electronics.

A number of factors contribute to the potential for EMI issues with metal-halide HID street lights:

  1. Metal-halide HID lighting was first applied in industrial settings. HID electrical ballasts appear to be designed mainly according to American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards.1 These standards may be insufficient to warrant interference free operation in residential street lighting scenarios.
  2. HID electrical ballast typically switch a couple of kilovolt at 100–400 Hz with a square wave pattern.
  3. HID electrical ballast input filtering/line conditioning may be poor, allowing for harmonics of the switched square wave to propagate as a common mode signal along the mains power line. The mains power line will radiate this RF energy as an antenna wherever possible.
  4. Consequently, EMI direction finding techniques may often fail at pointing out the HID electrical ballast as the interference source.
  5. CE marking is by large a self-certification scheme and manufacturers or importers are responsible for identify the applicable Directive(s) and assessing the product’s conformity.8
  6. This may result in cases of unlawful CE marking misuse whereby only a selected set of CE EMC norms (e.g. EN 61000-3-2:20069) are tested for, whereas other pertinent EMC norms (e.g. EN 55015:201310) are completely neglected.3
  7. Performing EMC conformance tests in unrealistic product settings (e.g. with unusual short mains power lines) equally results in unlawful CE marking misuse.
  8. Utility companies are completely oblivious to HID electrical ballasts potentially causing EMI.
  9. National regulatory telecommunications authorities are lacking the means for adequate EMC product inspection and law enforcement.
  10. HID street lighting involves switched power levels of several hundred watts up to a few kilowatts. Consequently, when EMI issues occur, these will be far more serious compared to the issues with switched LED lightning.
  11. The fast paced adoption of HID street light technology by utility providers all over Europe, may well be the number one contributing factor to the raising background noise levels on the HF band.

References

1. Wikipedia. Metal-halide lamp. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal-halide_lamp.

2. Wikipedia. Electrical ballast. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_ballast.

3. Harvard Technology Ltd. LeafNut – HID outdoor 250W ballast. Available at: http://www.harvardtechnology.com/download_file/780/378/.

4. David Gregory, G0SLV. Street lighting interference. 2016. Available at: http://www.thersgb.org/forums/index.php?threads/street-lighting-interference.208/.

5. David Gregory, G0SLV. Ham radio: Street light interference. 2016. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xxxsy6zjSU0.

6. Ofcom. Ofcom’s approach to enforcement – Consultation on revising the enforcement guidelines and related documents. Available at: https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0024/96810/enforcement-consultation.pdf.

7. Chris de Waard. Honderden nieuwe ontvangers voor verhelpen probleem straatverlichting. 2015. Available at: http://sleutelstad.nl/2015/11/05/honderden-nieuwe-ontvangers-voor-verhelpen-probleem-straatverlichting/.

8. Wikipedia. CE marking. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CE_marking.

9. RF EMC Development, Ltd. EN 61000‒3‒2:2006+A1+A2 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 3 – 2: Limits — Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current ≤16 A per phase). 2006. Available at: http://rfemcdevelopment.eu/index.php/en/en61000-3-2-2006-a1-a2.

10. RF EMC Development, Ltd. EN 55015:2013 Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of electrical lighting and similar equipment. 2013. Available at: http://rfemcdevelopment.eu/en/emc-emi-standards/en-55015-2013.

Member Comments:
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Coming to a Street Near You...  
by NN2X on June 4, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
That was highly informative

I would assume, some manufacturer in the Ham world will may design a special filter for this interference...Although + 15 over S 9 take some filtering!. (I remember the Filter for the "Russian woodpecker") That seem to work very well.

I know in my location (Suburbs) there is S7 to S9 noise, and it is coming from all over (In location and all over from the sources). however, the DSP, on the 590s, (Kenwood), takes away most of it.

The new SDR, I hope are able to work this even better!

I know the legislation and bureaucracy to modify the law and have the manufactures (The new Light Bulbs) actually comply will take an act equivalent of a miracle! So, hence I lean on the Ham community to "Patch" the new RFI!

Cheers
Tom
NN2X

 
Coming to a Street Near You...  
by K6AER on June 4, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
You cannot filter a signal being radiated on a desired frequency. You can try to mitigate the recovered audio if the interrfering audio is repetitive like a pulse noise but if the interfering signal is random and broadband you are screwed.

Our part 15 FCC regulations never took into account sensitive HF communications. Plasma TV's are a prime example. This broadband RF noise problem is just the tip if the interference iceberg.

This is an LED light bulb on steroids.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by WA1RNE on June 4, 2017 Mail this to a friend!

I don't believe the electronic versions of HID lights are in use nearly as much as types using reactor ballasts or LED lighting.

But for the loations like yours that do use them, take a look at post #11 from your link to the RSGB forum discussing street light interference.

http://www.thersgb.org/forums/index.php?threads/street-lighting-interference.208/


Apparently a ham from the UK has been working with the local electric utility known as Eon, who began installing ferrites at the input source which solved his problem. Hopefully this will work for you if you can get your utility to do the same.

...WA1RNE
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by ZENKI on June 5, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
When the authorities come around to your QTH to measure this noise they will use a 60cm H field shielded loop.

The problem is that all the professional HF EMC measuring antennas cannot measure signal levels to the lowest ITU R p372 levels for Quiet rural or even at city levels of noise.

The noise floor of the pre-amps on most small commercial EMC loops are well above what hams consider noise free QTH levels. All that they are measuring is the noise floor of the preamp and not the real noise levels.

I had a huge battle even trying to explain this to a radio inspector when he was investigating LED noise. He said his field strengths measurements of the LED noise indicated that it met standards. He was convinced that his expensive R&S loop costing 10,000 dollars was the best and my tuned loop was rubbish despite my loop being calibrated in a GTEM cell and could easily measure signals in a quiet rural environment.

You cant win when the way they measure noise from devices is flawed in science. Hams need to build their own EMC loops and have them calibrated. It would be nice if some SDR receiver manufacturer included Quasi peak and a 9khz EMC bandwidth with the ability to apply an antenna factor table. Siglent makes a nice affordable spectrum analyzer with EMC measurement abilities.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by ON4AA on June 5, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
@ZENKI
You are right.

However, for conducted emission tests, one can also revert to transducers like the LISN (Line Impedance Stabilisation Network) or AMN (Artificial Mains Network) and the RF current clamp.

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_Impedance_Stabilization_Network
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by ON4AA on June 5, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
@WA1RNE

Be careful! The light spectrum of a HID lamp looks quite a bit like LED light. At least over here in Europe, HID is far more common in street lighting than LED. The inverse is true for residential lighting. There I see far more LED, which is cheaper. Industrial/commercial lighting uses both types of lighting in more or less equal amounts.
This does not take away that poorly designed LED lighting can be equally disruptive to the electromagnetic spectrum. The purpose of this article is to call attention to HID lighting, which may be a lesser known source of EMI/RFI.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by KA4KOE on June 5, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
I've got news for you....HID lamps are becoming harder and harder to obtain. So, the economies of installing LED streetlights begin to make sense. I'm hearing this from lighting factory representatives. It just doesn't make sense anymore to continue using HID sources....you can see at least a 50% drop in energy usage for the same lumen outpoot.

With the extreme long life, factor in maintenance costs as utilities will have to "relamp" less frequently.

The key is good LED driver design that does not produce tons of RF hash.

Fleep
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by KA4KOE on June 5, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
I'll have to check with my favorite rep for Cooper and ask about RFI suppression. The key is to write tight specifications designating RF emission limits and enforce them.

http://www.cooperindustries.com/content/dam/public/lighting/products/documents/streetworks/spec_sheets/streetworks-avs-avm-vision-site-led-td500002en-sss.pdf
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by KA4KOE on June 5, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
More...

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/major-fcc-regulation-change-led-lighting-devices-davin-moorman
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by ZENKI on June 5, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
ON4AA, OK on the LISN. I work with them every other day!

That aside. A LISN will be used in a controlled environment shielded room to ensure compliance.pre-compliance. Its not practical to use them in the field. Besides they are very dangerous items if you dont know what you are doing.

A good safe substitute for hams is to use a RF current probe. They are very convenient to use and if you build or get one with a Flat S21 response on HF you can quickly work out what is causing the severe interference.

I have boxes full of LED lights that were removed from my neighbors. All Chinese LED lights that all have fraudulent EMC approval markings on them. The worst are those Ebay LED floodlights. Its not the LEDs that causes the interference but the drivers. There are some really bad drivers installed in these LED flood Lights. Most of the ones that I have come across have no filtering whatsoever.

The trend lately has been to use driver-less circuits and these dont cause so much interference the OSRAM lights for example are generally very good. They are driver-less

Even though you are concerned about conducted emissions, ultimately the emissions will radiate. So in this case a loop will be used to measure the radiated emissions. Its very easy to make a RF current probe using a clip on ferrite like the TDK ZCAT series of ferrites.

Anyway the point you making that this is a new threat to the ham bands. Again its a case of the EMC regulation not keeping pace. Which seems to be a regular problem these days. The Chinese manufacturers get away with it but our home country manufacturers get fined and end up in court. Thats our new generation of corrupt politicians!
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by SWMAN on June 5, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
ZENKI, ALL OF OUR POLITICIANS ARE JUST A BUNCH OF GREEDY A-HOLES ! THATS BIG A-HOLES !
 
Coming to a Street Near You...  
by KK5JY on June 5, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
The municipalities around here can't even afford to keep normal bulbs in their existing fixtures, so there's no way they are going to splurge for the $$$ needed to upgrade any of those fixtures to something with an even higher maintenance cost.

I'm sure there are places where it seems "green" or otherwise fashionable to do away with traditional lighting but in most of the Underwater States, it's not going to happen.

There are towns in my state that are doing away with large strips of streetlights altogether, to save on utility costs. They spent all their money on other nonsense, so they can no longer afford frivolous things like infrastructure and maintenance.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by KH6AQ on June 5, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
Rather than approaching the FCC, or local equivalent, primarily about interference to amateur radio communication, another approach would be to emphasize LF and MF broadcast. Getting the broadcast industry involved would lend weight to the push for an early solution.
 
Coming to a Street Near You...  
by VE3TMT on June 5, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
Last year our city replaced all our city streetlights with LEDs. Although not the subject of this article, I've experienced no increase in noise levels whatsoever.

Max
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by K8QV on June 6, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
The sky is falling! Again! I guess governments don't care if government radios work either, right? It's worth it just to ruin the day for the .002% of the population that are amateur radio hobbyists.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by KK5JY on June 6, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
>> I guess governments don't care if government radios work either, right? <<

To be fair, that's why public service radios are almost all FM. Combine that with coded squelch, and it is very rare for LMR to experience QRM from noisy devices or noisy power systems.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by K8QV on June 6, 2017 Mail this to a friend!


by KK5JY on June 6, 2017
>> I guess governments don't care if government radios work either, right? <<

To be fair, that's why public service radios are almost all FM. Combine that with coded squelch, and it is very rare for LMR to experience QRM from noisy devices or noisy power systems. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Governments DO use HF radio as well:

https://www.codanradio.com/news/codan-and-by-light-awarded-share-in-10-4m-usd-government-hf-radio-contract/
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by ON4AA on June 6, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
The US military is greatly concerned about the effects of RFI on their operations; not only on HF, but also on VHF and higher.

The problem book of last winter's DARPA Brussels Hackfest attests to this:
https://darpahackfest.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/ProblemBook_v16.pdf

It appears that DARPA is interested in characterising all kinds of RFI sources. Advanced SDR techniques would then be deployed in an attempt to neutralise the RFI.
https://darpahackfest.com/past-hackfest#DARPA-Brussels-Hackfest

By the way, FM signals equally suffer under RFI, but in a less obvious way; e.g. phase noise.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by N9AOP on June 7, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
No worry here because the municipalities favor LED for street and site lighting. I have seen car LED headlights that rival HID.
Art
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by K2JVI on June 7, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
Our city replaced all of the sodium lights with LED's over the past year. Just as VE3TMT experienced, I have had no increase in noise, in fact, my noise level may have gone down a bit. Drove a mobile HF radio directly under an LED street light-no noise on any HF band. Have an LED street light across the street, no noise. Verified by carefully listening before the light turned on for the night and afterwards, no difference. It seems to me that the LED lights would make more sense especially since high voltage supplies can be costly and often break down more than low voltage supplies. Also have replaced some flood lights in my house with LED versions, of course chose them carefully and tested completely, no additional noise.
 
Coming to a Street Near You...  
by K6BRN on June 18, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
Ummmmm.... In my West Coast neighborhood HID is "Old School" and all street and traffic lights are being replaced with LED units. Similar replacements are happening at my East Coast QTH as well.

So... how are LEDs destroying amateur radio?
 
Coming to a Street Near You...  
by GM0ONX on June 26, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
I’m afraid this article is one of the worst examples of exaggerated worry I’ve seen for a long time.

First of all this type of street is nothing new, we’ve had it Europe for decades both in both non-electronic and latterly electronic forms. It is now considered very much old technology and being actively replaced by LEDs in all but its highest wattage versions by most local authority street lighting departments on energy saving grounds.

Yes it CAN most definitely cause interference, but usually only under fault conditions particularly where the lantern continues to fire HT pulses strike the lamp after has started. I actually contacted Dave G0SLV cited in the references to this article regarding his problem at the time and with his active help the local street lighting department resolved the issue which I believe was down to a single faulty lantern which was replaced.

One of the last jobs I did before retiring as the local authority Street Lighting Manager was to convert the existing HID lighting (with electronic gear) to LED lighting on my street and I am pleased to report both are equally as quite with no noticeable increase in RF noise levels verses the old yellow low pressure sodium lanterns first fitted in the street.

Unfortunately the same cannot be said for some of the low end products from the fair east, particularly domestic LED lighting, which can sufferer from exactly the same problem as dodgy computer PSU and for exactly the same reason. They contain no EMC protection in their drivers (PSU) wiping out much of amateur bands.

Anything that genuinely conforms to an EC/FCC standard should be capable of operating with no issues to the Radio Amateur. Be vigilant , but don’t worry unnecessarily, this type of street lighting is capable of coexisting with amateur radio!

Len Paget IEng FILP GM0ONX

 
Coming to a Street Near You...  
by KC3ECJ on July 1, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
The problem with alot of the new led street lamps is they are white.
Being white, they make objects look blurry and deplete the biochemical for natural night vision rhodopsin quickly. The white also attracts moths.

The old orange lamps did not have this problem.
They can easily put an orange, yellow, or amber filter over the led lamps, but they haven't.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by GM0ONX on July 1, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
Not experienced distant objects being blurrier you describe, in fact on the contrary. As for filtering them yellow, they are very good reasons for not doing so.

In Europe they has been a lot of study in to Scotopic and Mesopic vision (vision under low levels of lighting) and they found you need a lot less light to see objects with white light verses yellow. This has resulted in the CEN Road Lighting standard EN1302 allowing road lighting to be at a much lower level when done with white LED lighting. Yellow SOX lighting also fires light in all directions whereas LED has an extremely sharp cut off.

Astronomers in the USA prefer SOX as you can filter it easily whereas in Europe they prefer white LED as only a fraction of it goes skywards as it better controlled. Sorry to be a bit of a nerd but after 35 years of being a lighting engineer and slightly longer a radio amateur, it comes naturally. HI.

The good news is, regardless of the reasons for using it, HID and LED lighting can coexist with amateur radio PROVIDED its designed, manufactured and maintained to the required standard. Omit any of the three and you can have issues.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by ON4AA on July 1, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
A couple of comments to GM0ONX's interesting remarks:

- I think KC3ECJ might be referring to the blur effect resulting from excessive amounts of blue light in (poorly designed?) LED lights. It also seems to blur many television cameras nowadays. This is why French, Swiss and Belgian authorities are advising against the use of LED lighting in class room settings. https://www.anses.fr/fr/content/led-diodes-électroluminescentes

- With your combined background in ham radio and a professional career in street lightning, you are in a privileged position to understand the issues at hand from both perspectives. Undoubtedly, you will have taken great care in ensuring no or little RF leaked from your installations. However, I doubt many of your colleagues in other places are equally aware of the potential pitfalls. They probably care less about the quality of products and their installation. The mere fact that G0SLV's problem actually did occur or that a Dutch utility provider (reference 7) did manage to jam its own wireless signaling are testimony to this.

One question I would love to ask you is: To what extent are HID street lights dependent on having their feed lines buried and/or shielded by a metallic pedestal in order to achieve EMC norms?

I have noticed increased emissions from HID pedestals with a lid missing (due to vandalism), from tapped HID pedestals with overhead cables to feed other lighting and from HID pedestals with shallowly buried cables because of being on top of an underground parking.

European hams are currently experiencing huge increases in environmental noise. These increased noise conditions seem to coincide with areas of high population density. I do agree that much of this noise must originate from poorly designed domestic LED lights and switching power adapters.

Domestic LED lights containing some sort of a switching supply are most prone to causing RFI. LED bulbs containing only a series voltage dividing capacitor seem to cause no problems. Many amateur radio operators remain unaware about these differences in LED bulb design. Explaining how to distinguish between these LED bulb designs may form the topic of an interesting article.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by GM0ONX on July 2, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
As you say poorly designed domestic LED lighting is much more of a problem the radio amateur as when it does occur the person owning the LED lighting may not see it as a problem for him/her to address. The general rising of the noise floor also makes identifying the source of interference more difficult. How many of us have blamed external factors only to find out the source of the problem is more home grown.

Like many CE tests, the test for compliance is not done in the real word. The lantern is tested in isolation of their cable networks and no account is taken of the likes overhead cable systems radiating the interference.

A word of warning, you might think interference is coming from street lighting only to find out the lighting column is just acting as a passive radiator and radiating interference from another source. I’ve seen that happen and with residential lighting columns being 5/6m in height that’s about a quarter wavelength at 20m very good at doing this.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by N5JRN on July 11, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
@K6BRN, Similar story here, the local power utility is swapping out the sodium vapor lamps for LED's, which so far as I know are more efficient than HID's (and last longer). Why would utilities willingly choose a technology (like HID) that uses more electricity and requires more maintenance? Doesn't make sense.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by GM0ONX on July 12, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
HID still has its place in higher power applications where LED lighting is expensive and cannot make the required ‘spend to save criteria’ at the moment. They simply do not save enough on electricity and maintenance to justify the cost of installation within a reasonable time.

However LED lighting is a bit like buying a PC, the best time to do it is always next year and HID is definitely on its way out.
 
Coming to a Street Near You...  
by N4ZAW on July 15, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
And I hate to tell y'all this, but HIDs are "coming DOWN a street near you", too!

Automakers and it's aftermarket have discovered HID lighting, and the genie is out of the bottle, folks. This will get far worse before it gets better.

And thank you, Serge, for trying to enlighten (no pun intended) others as to what the resultant RFI they're all hearing on their receivers more frequently and stronger than ever, once had a preventable source.
Personally, I fear that it's too late to stop it due to global governmental interests, who don't even know what RF spectral pollution is.
 
RE: Coming to a Street Near You...  
by GM0ONX on July 15, 2017 Mail this to a friend!
Nothing new in this either. My 2004 Renault Laguna had HID XENON lights and I worked HF mobile from it for years with no noticeable noise from them. Again these are being increasingly replaced by LED lighting in Europe.

Interference from the diesel injectors on 40m that was a different matter.
 
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