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Author Topic: How Many Exams Per License Class did the FCC have When FCC Administered the Exam  (Read 5552 times)
K2ACB
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« on: June 22, 2017, 12:04:32 AM »

There is a great article on E/ham in the Articles Section by W7VO on The Storied History of the Licensing Structure.

I took all my amateur radio examinations going from General ,Advanced and Extra Class License at the local FCC offices in New York City. I never bothered with the Tech license. I got my novice license when I was 14 back in 1962 . That exam was mailed to my home and only consisted of 20 multiple choice questions  An amateur with a general class exam could administer that exam. All you needed was to get 15 questions correct and pass 5 wpm code test administered by the same radio amateur who proctored the written exam. The test was given on the honor system. I originally found someone who was only 16 and was a friend of a friend. This fellow  had just gotten his general class exam. He consented to give me my novice exam. However at the last minute he said something had come up and he had to cancel my test.

i ended having the test administered to me by a fellow attorney friend of my father who lived on Staten Island in New York City. I was a Manhattanite. This person had been a radio amateur prior to the second world war. I had to go all the way out to Staten Island with my parents to take that Novice exam. .  

I do not know how many general class exams the FCC had at their New York Offices. My Novice license was valid for only one year. If you did not get a higher class within that time your license expired. As a Novice you were limited to running 75 watts or less. You only had CW privileges on HF and you had to be crystal controlled. You could not use a VFO. You were also limited to certain frequencies on 80,40 ,15 and I think 10 meters. You could only use phone privileges on some VHF bands. I think it was only on 2 Meters.

I never wanted a Tech license which only limited the operator to VHF-UHF and some 10 meter operation.I think this was the case . I am not certain. This was in 1964. At that time the Technician class license and the General class license involved the same written theory exam. However the Tech license required a code test of 5 WPM while the General class license required 13 WPM. Even though there was an Extra Class license,the Extra Class license at that time provided no extra operating privileges on hf than the General class license. There was also an Advanced class license between the General and Extra class license.
That license was issued only until 1952 and Advanced operators had the same privileges as the General class licensee and the Extra class licensee.

From the second month after I received my Novice license I went down to the FCC offices in Manhattan to try for the General class license. The examiner in Manahttan was this cigar chomping gentleman who had been at the FCC offices in New York for years. His name was either Charlie Finkleman or Finklestein. I do not remember. I also think at times he  wore a visor on his head.

At that time if you passed the CW part of the test and failed the theory you had to repeat the CW part of the test again. You received no credit for passing that part of the test. I failed the CW part of the exam five times. On my fifth attempt I passed that part of the exam. However I failed the theory part of the exam twice. Finally on my eighth attempt I passed both parts of the exam. I still had two months left on my novice exam before it expired. I was very persistent and only 15 years old.

At the FCC offices they had some chairs with strait keys.You were also allowed to bring your own Bug Key such as a Vibroplex key if you had one. You were supposed  to send for a minute but  Mr. Finkleman or Finklestein decided how long you had to send. You sent the code after you passed the CW written exam which consisted of a tape five minutes long. At that time the tape which was on a machine consisted of random letters numbers and punctuation. You had to copy one minute of the five minute tape correctly. Mr. Finkleman or Finklestein corrected the CW written papers.

I remember one time during one of my my eight visits to the FCC offices,I don't remember which one, a fellow had passed the CW part of the exam. However Mr. Finkleman or Finklestein could not comprehend his code sending. After a minute or two he said the applicant had failed the CW sending part of the exam. He told the applicant to come back the following month or later until he had improved his CW sending ability.

I had heard rumors at that time that the FCC in New York only had 3 or 4 different test exams and if you took the test long enough you would get the same exam again. I do not think I got the same General exam again when I passed the exam at that time. I was 15 years old. At that time the General class exam consisted of 50 multiple choie questions. i think you had to get 38 correct to pass. Mr. Finkleman or Finklestein would tell everyone who took the written test after the test whether you passed or failed.

Four years later the FCC started their incentive licensing program  They re-introduced the Advanced class license and would allow you to take the Extra class license without a two year waiting period of holding a Tech or higher class license.The hf privileges of the General class license on CW and phone would be curtailed. I felt I must get the new Advanced class license. The Extra class license still required a 20 WPM random CW sending and receiving test while the Advanced class test only required the theory test.

I do not know how many tests the FCC had at the time but it took me three times to pass the Advanced class test. Again i do not remember but I do not think at that time i got the same test twice. I also think I took after I passed the Advanced exam  the Extra Class exam. I remember taking the CW written part of the exam and not even coming close to passing. I know at that time the Extra written exam was 100 questions. Ninety questions were multiple choice questions and you had to write 10 schematic diagram questions.. I do ot remember what was the passing grade. I did know a few youngsters 15 and 16 years old who were able to get the Extra class license at that time. They all became electrical engineers.

Many years passed and I knew I still wanted te Extra Class license . I wanted the extra class license as a personal achievement and because it was the top of the line. I heard a the end of the 70's the FCC had changed the format for the amateur radio exams The CW test was no longer a random code test. It was now a QSO. There were 10 questions about the QSO such as where the operators lived and what where there names and the reports they gave out. You had to get 7 out of 10 of these questions correct and you no longer had to send CW to pass the test. You also got credit for the Cw part of the test if you passed it and failed the written part of the exam.

Most important the Extra class exam which had been 50 multiple choice questions was reduced to 40 questions. You only had to get 32 out of the 40 questions correct to pass. I had also heard at that time that the FCC only had three copies of this Extra class exam. There were also books at that time like the Dash books hat purported to give the questions the FCC had on their exams.

I never used the Dash books. I did go to a center that tutored people for the amateur radio exams It was not free. I do not remember the cost.I had a few friends who got their amateur radio licenses through this center.  A fellow ran this center in Manhattan for several years. His name
I think  was Larry Horn. He was a character.Whatever happened to him after his school for radio amateurs closed down,I do not know. He also was using Radio Shack computers to prepare his students for the amateur exams in both the theory and code. I think he was one of the first to use computers to prepare his students for exams.

On my first attempt at the Extra in 1980 i passed the CW portion of the exam but i failed the theory. I was told i came close to passing. However I had to wait a month to take the theory again. This time I do distinctly remember  I received the exact same extra class exam I took the first time. I knew that if i got the same exam again I would not fail it on my second time around. I passed this time.

It would only be three years later that the FCC got out of giving the radio amateur exams and gave the testing over to VEC's. I have never taken an exam with a VEC so I am not familiar with how those exams are administred. I know that now there is no waiting period if you fail the exam and there is no CW exam.

I am just curious if anyone knows that when the FCC administered the amateur radio exams how many exams did they have for each license test1?. Was it more than three or four? How often did the FCC change their exams? Was it possible if you took the exam on more than one occasion you would have a good chance of getting the same exam on your next attempt ?

If anyone has any input on this matter,that would be appreciated.
73-Alan-

First licensed as WN2DZW,changed to WB2DZW after the General class license and since 1996 changed to K2ACB,my initials.



« Last Edit: June 22, 2017, 12:10:21 AM by K2ACB » Logged
W4KYR
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« Reply #1 on: June 22, 2017, 03:04:14 AM »

Regarding that legendary New York FCC Examiner, his name was Charles Finkelman and his call letters were W2UHS.

He ran that infamous motor driven keyer which produced the code test back in the day at the NY FCC district office. There are several pictures of him in "So You Want To Be a Ham" by Robert Hertzberg 1971 5th Edition. http://www.eham.net/reviews/detail/13103

Also there are several pictures of him here too
http://www.wb2lqf.com/amateur-radio-and-me/the-legendary-mr-charles-finkleman







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K1LEM
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« Reply #2 on: June 22, 2017, 07:28:39 AM »

   The year I graduated from HS 1964 , I took the First Class Phone Exam - For broadcast in Schenectady Ny. Youth made me lucky because the chief engineer at WCAX Tv had a summer transmitter job on Mt. Mansfield. Pay was 95.00 a week !
In the summer a Boston FCC rep came to Charlotte Vermont Ham Fest and I sat for the Extra. (There was no extra priviledges in those days, and the FCC respected the Extra as much as the 1st Phone. They even offered a Diploma of accomplishment!
There were in addition to 20 wpm had to be prefect copy for one minute , a 150 Question exam for which figure blank paper was distributed. The questions were not duplicates from a study book as they are today.

For Example  The ARRL study book might ask a power equation question and give the answer, BUT the FCC question would ask the same question and want you to SOLVE or isolate voltage and solve for it from the power equation.
For example: Power RMS = V squared/r 
The question would be what voltage would be experienced at a feed point 50 ohms resistive if 300 watts is delivered to the antenna.

There were at least twenty questions that required drawing a complex schematic such as a class B Triode push -pull power amplifier. In those days the smart people had the extras.

BTW I passed, but maybe by skin of my teeth.
 Wink
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WA2ISE
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« Reply #3 on: June 22, 2017, 01:23:20 PM »


He ran that infamous motor driven keyer which produced the code test back in the day at the NY FCC district office.


I knew a ham who went to the NYC office to take some tests, and the examiner, who wasn't a ham, administered. He plays the paper tape machine, but my friend says it was gibberish, and not code.  The paper tape was shredded.  The examiner said the equivalent of "BS" and failed her.   Angry   That FCC office also did other license testing, like 1st class radiotelephone and such, which didn't require code. 

In high school around 1971 my father and I went to Dave P's house (Dave was a FCC radio enforcer out of NYC, and had a ham license) to take the tech.  Dave said I should do the novice, as he said the tech license was a ham radio black hole I'd never escape to HF.   Cheesy  Anyway, he sends code for me to copy, but he did it Farnsworth method (13WPM characters spaced at 5WPM) which I couldn't handle, as my practice records did code at 5WPM with 5WPM characters.   Sad

Years later I went there to take the tech license (summer 1976).  Novice code (5WPM) receiver and send.  Passed that easily, but almost failed the general written test!  Shocked   A little embarrassing as I was majoring in electrical engineering in college back then.  But I did good enough, the FCC didn't have a "tech with honors" license that I would have missed.  Grin

Years later, in Y2K I could have paper upgraded to General, as the FCC dropped the max code speed to 5WPM, but I decided to go for it and passed the extra.  The VEC said that I missed only a couple questions on the advanced and the extra tests they were still using at the time.  So I could have gotten an "extra with honors" if such a thing existed.    Grin  No, we don't need that, we have enough license levels as it is...   But I did get a "nickel extra" (5WPM and extra written).
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KA1VF
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« Reply #4 on: June 22, 2017, 01:39:09 PM »

Alan, I think that you are asking for the Exam Element names/numbers prior to 1984
        which is when the FCC handed over testing responsibility to the VEC teams.

         My recollection is as follows, and I'll let anybody correct my memory if bogus.

         Novice: Element 2 (written) and Element 1A (5 wpm code)
         Technician: Element 3 (written) and Element 1A (5 wpm code)
         General: Element 3 (written) and Element 1B (13 wpm code)
         Advanced: Elements 3, 1B, and 4A (written)
         Extra: Elements 3, 1B, 4A, and 4B (written) and Element 4C (20 wpm code)
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K2OWK
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« Reply #5 on: June 22, 2017, 05:07:40 PM »

Novice 1 year not renewable
Technician 5 years renewable
General  5 years renewable
Advanced 5 years renewable
Extra Class 5 years renewable

When I took my exam the General Class covered all Ham frequency's available at the time, including 11 meters.
Advanced and Extra were taken for prestige, and no additional privileges were available at that time.

73s

K2OWK
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W3HF
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« Reply #6 on: June 22, 2017, 06:36:10 PM »

Alan, I think that you are asking for the Exam Element names/numbers prior to 1984
        which is when the FCC handed over testing responsibility to the VEC teams.

         My recollection is as follows, and I'll let anybody correct my memory if bogus.

         Novice: Element 2 (written) and Element 1A (5 wpm code)
         Technician: Element 3 (written) and Element 1A (5 wpm code)
         General: Element 3 (written) and Element 1B (13 wpm code)
         Advanced: Elements 3, 1B, and 4A (written)
         Extra: Elements 3, 1B, 4A, and 4B (written) and Element 4C (20 wpm code)


Close. 20 wpm code was 1C, and Extra did not require 1B, at least not directly. (Since for a while there was a requirement to have held a General or Advanced license for one or two years[depending on date], there was a de facto requirement for 1B. But the license manuals never listed it.)

(But I really think that Alan was asking how many versions of the Element 3 (for example) test the FCC stocked. There was more than one (so you couldn't guarantee you'd get the same test the next time if you failed), but it wasn't infinite. He talked about taking the Advanced test 3 times and never having the exact same exam, but having the same exam the two times he took the Extra.)
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K2ACB
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« Reply #7 on: June 23, 2017, 08:16:08 AM »

First let me thank W4KYR for pointing out that the examiner for many years at the FCC's office in downtown Manhattan was named Charles Finkleman.

With regard to WA2ISE comment concerning Dave P, I first met Dave P ,W2FCC, as a 15 year old novice several months after I first got my novice license. It was for a young kid at that time a scary encounter.Years later when I would meet Dave P at local hamfests I would remind him of the incident and we would laugh about it.

The local public high school i attended in Manhattan had a radio club. The club had a faculty advisor who was a teacher in the school. The club also had  a vhf radio station and a vhf antenna on the roof of the school building. . I joined that club soon after I got my novice license. I met another fellow at the club who had just gotten his general class license. This fellow wanted to upgrade his equipment and wanted to sell me his used Heath DX 20 fifty watt crystal controlled transmitter and Hallicrafters SX110 receiver. He made me a good deal if I would buy his station. He also said he would help me set up my station and put up a 40 meter dipole on the roof of my apartment building.

There was also another fellow in the radio club that for some reason I and him did not get along. This fellow was two years older and had a general class license. I think when he graduated he went to the Renseleer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) and became an Electrical Engineer.

A lot of the young people who were licensed in high school when I was a kid later went into Engineering or a science related occupation. Amateur radio was a good training ground for this. I on the other hand became interested in amateur radio because of short wave radio. I found it fascinating that through amateur radio you could communicate with people from around the world. Short wave radio was just for listening. You could not communicate back.

I eventually became an attorney, an academic and consultant . My interests were not scientific or in engineering but in communications and international affairs. Maybe that is why I had to persist to get my radio amateur licenses. Math and science were not my best subjects in school.

I have worked and confirmed over the years over 300 countries around the world on both cw and phone. I have also travelled extensively and have met radio amateurs from all over the world including some who i contacted. Some of these people have been amongst the most interesting people i have ever met.

After I got my novice station set up I used to go on 15 meter CW with my crystal controlled 50 watt DX 20 and 40 meter dipole and often call CQ DX. I did work as a novice some  DX stations . In those days I would QSL practically every one I worked. Prior to getting my General license I managed to work quite a lot of states and maybe 25 or 30 countries.

On two or three occasions I would get a QSL card from the DX station thanking me for my QSL Card but informing me that I had never worked the station. I thought maybe i had copied the stations, call sign wrong in my log. One day a fellow from the radio club from my high school told me that he heard that the fellow in the club I was not friendly with had occasionaly when he heard me calling CQ DX  would reply to my CQ with DX call signs from actual stations he had worked. He did this as a practical joke.

Whether this actually happened i had no proof. This fellow lived several miles away. He had a Hallicrafters HT37 transmitter and a home made amplifier and a beam antenna. I was told when he did this he turned the beam away from my direction and ran very low power.

One day i heard him on the air calling CQ. He had a vfo and was not crystal controlled. I was a bit angry from what i had heard he did to me. I went on the air and i sent in a one way QSO that this fellow was a lid. I repeated this a few times. Unbeknownst to me when I did this he heard me and he called up the FCC and complained that I was sending one way communications and I had called him a lid over the air.

Two days later in the late afternoon after  school there was a ring at the doorbell in the apartment which I lived. My mom answered the door and there was a young man who showed her a badge and said he was from the FCC offices in downtown Manhattan. He asked if I was at home and he wanted to see me and look at my station.

My mom and especially I were very apprehensive.. I was only 15 and i never had any brush ins with the law. My father was an attorney. However he was at work and he did not specialize in criminal law.

The FCC enforcer who was Dave P said that a complaint had been made about my station activities by this other fellow from my high school. He asked first to see my log book. He examined my log book. He saw that I only put in my log stations that i contacted. I never put in the log each time i went on the air and signed off even if i did not make a QSO. That was a violation at the time. He also confiscated my log and took it with him. i did not get it back from the FCC for almost a year when they mailed it back to me.  

He also looked at my station. He saw that my SX110 receiver did not have a BFO to check the edges of the ham bands. He said that was also a violation. He said I would be receiving shortly in the mail an FCC notice of violation also referred to as a pink slip report. I had to answer this violation notice or my amateur radio license would be suspended.

I also told him that I felt the other party from my high school was responsible for what I did and that he was going on the air and making up DX stations calls which I answered and sent QSL cards. Much to Dave P's credit he said he would go over to this other fellows home and check out his station. He did that and i heard he cited this other fellow with a violation because he could not adequately measure the power output on his home made amplifier.

When i got the pink slip report from the FCC I answered it and said the violations would be corrected. I never heard from the FCC again and that was the first and last time I ever received an FCC pink slip report. I also never again had any problems with that fellow radio amateur from my high school nor was i ever in touch with him after he graduated.

As for Dave P (W2FCC) I found out years later that he was in his early 20's when he paid me an official visit from the FCC. This was his first job after he graduated from the Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey as an Electrical Engineer.

Dave P did not make a career out of being an  an FCC Engineer. He subsequently left the FCC after a few years and became an Engineer for ATT in New Jersey which eventually became Verizon. I used to see him from time to time at some local hamfests. He also lived in New Jersey.  I think he retired a number of years ago. It has also been a number of years since I last saw him.

Whenever we would meet at a local hamfest i would remind Dave P of the time he came to my apartment and gave me the pink slip. It was ironic that at that time,years later, the FCC did away with the requirement you had to keep a log book. I also think they did away long ago with the requirement you had to have a BFO on your receiver to know the edge of the amateur bands.

That is my story about Dave P and the FCC.

When i got my amateur radio license there were a lot of young people involved in amateur radio especially in high school. There were also a lot of high school amateur radio stations. Today there are hardly any high school amateur radio stations in the USA.. Few young people today are interested in amateur radio. My own two sons(I married later in life) who are now in college are both studying computer science. They have never had an interest in amateur radio even though they were exposed to the hobby at a young age.

My youngest son and i disagree on a lot of things. One of our major disagreements is over amateur radio. He says in this day and age with instant communication over the internet and with the ability to communicate with people all over the world over the internet or through smart phones,  there is no need for amateur radio. He asks why is it necessary for someone to have to study electronics and take a government sponsored examination to talk and communicate with other people when you have the internet and smart phones with all their apps.These require no licenses.Even though I understand where he and his generartion are coming from,I do not agree with my son.

I answer him that in times of emergency when there maybe no power and cell phone towers are down  a trained amateur radio operator maybe the only means of emergency communication. There are also many remote spots on the globe especially in undeveloped parts of this world or remote islands where internet service and cell phone service does not exist or is poor.  You can still communicate by amateur radio. These answers do not satisfy him .But without new recruits especially young people, amateur radio will eventually perhaps in several generations whither away.

Finally thus far no one has answered if they know how many actual radio amateur tests existed per license exam when the FCC administered the tests. Maybe nobody knows the answer?

73
Alan-K2ACB







« Last Edit: June 23, 2017, 08:27:39 AM by K2ACB » Logged
W3HF
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« Reply #8 on: June 23, 2017, 10:08:45 AM »

My youngest son and i disagree on a lot of things. One of our major disagreements is over amateur radio. He says in this day and age with instant communication over the internet and with the ability to communicate with people all over the world over the internet or through smart phones,  there is no need for amateur radio. He asks why is it necessary for someone to have to study electronics and take a government sponsored examination to talk and communicate with other people when you have the internet and smart phones with all their apps.These require no licenses.Even though I understand where he and his generartion are coming from,I do not agree with my son.

I answer him that in times of emergency when there maybe no power and cell phone towers are down  a trained amateur radio operator maybe the only means of emergency communication. There are also many remote spots on the globe especially in undeveloped parts of this world or remote islands where internet service and cell phone service does not exist or is poor.  You can still communicate by amateur radio. These answers do not satisfy him .But without new recruits especially young people, amateur radio will eventually perhaps in several generations whither away.

Another example I use is why would anyone ever go hunting or fishing or have a garden in their backyard when you can buy all the food you want in a store? Part of the answer is that people sometimes like to do it themselves. In other words, it's not just the communications itself, it's how it's done that matters (at least to some of us).

I also sometimes use the comparison to a sport or other competition. It's like playing a game--there are rules and you try to achieve a high score. (That could be DXCC, or a contest, or any other metric.) Sometimes it's personal accomplishment (like playing solitaire), other times it's a direct competition with others.

Finally thus far no one has answered if they know how many actual radio amateur tests existed per license exam when the FCC administered the tests. Maybe nobody knows the answer?

I think the only ones who would really know are the former FCC employees--I don't think that would have been public information. In fact, I think Dick Bash was probably the first to discover that there were fewer actual tests than many might have realized. I don't know if he ever came to a specific conclusion, or if he published a number.

My guess would be somewhere between three and five, but that's based solely on my personal logic, not any hard information. Any less than that would mean candidates are very likely to get the same test two months in a row; any more than that and you would have to spend extra time/labor/materials to create and stock tests that most of the time aren't needed.
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WA2ISE
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« Reply #9 on: June 23, 2017, 11:45:31 AM »

Quote
The FCC enforcer who was Dave P said that a complaint had been made about my station activities by this other fellow from my high school. He asked first to see my log book. He examined my log book. He saw that I only put in my log stations that I contacted. I never put in the log each time i went on the air and signed off even if I did not make a QSO.

I suspect most hams didn't log "no contacts".  Only a few times did I CQ, I mostly answer other's CQs. 

I suppose "CQ" for station contacted would be adequate for the log rules back then. 

Had heard that Dave's boss at the FCC told him to ease off the hams, and direct his attention to commercial broadcasters and taxi companies and such.  As they are usually bigger lids than the hams are (as a percentage of the number of licensees, 14.313 notwithstanding). 
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AA4PB
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« Reply #10 on: June 23, 2017, 02:12:18 PM »

I suspect most hams didn't log "no contacts"

They did back in the 50's and 60's. We logged everything including tuning and testing the rig if it transmitted a signal. You never knew when there might be a TVI complaint or some other issue.
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Bob  AA4PB
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K2OWK
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« Reply #11 on: June 23, 2017, 10:56:34 PM »

This is K2OWK again. I left out one other ham license. It was called conditional class license. The test was administered by a General or above license for would be hams that that lived 50 or more miles from an FCC testing facility. I am not sure, but I think license required upgrading, but was good for 5 years.

73s

K2OWK

Please correct me if I am wrong. I am an old ham and have trouble remembering that far back.
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W4KYR
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« Reply #12 on: June 23, 2017, 11:30:43 PM »

This is K2OWK again. I left out one other ham license. It was called conditional class license. The test was administered by a General or above license for would be hams that that lived 50 or more miles from an FCC testing facility. I am not sure, but I think license required upgrading, but was good for 5 years.

73s

K2OWK

Please correct me if I am wrong. I am an old ham and have trouble remembering that far back.

The hams had to live 125 miles or more from an FCC examination point, later changed to 75 miles with "exceptions for the military and physically disabled." wiki

The Conditional was always subject to retesting at an FCC point, I am not sure if anyone got retested. Also a Conditional license could not be used for an upgrade to Advanced Class, they would have to have a General Class License. In 1978 all Conditional Class licenses were changed to General Class license.

Note: There was yet ANOTHER class of license, it was officially called by the FCC: "Technician Plus" in 1994. Those are the hams who had the Tech license and also passed the 5 wpm test.

I became a "No Code Tech" in mid 1992 and became Technician Plus in the latter part of 1992 after passing the 5 wpm. (I went on to become General, Advanced Class and then Extra in 1993).
Since the FCC didn't give out Tech Plus licenses in 1992, my CSCE was my proof that I passed the 5 wpm so I could use 10 meters SSB (and use the Novice HF bands on CW).
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K1LEM
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« Reply #13 on: June 24, 2017, 01:56:14 PM »



The hams had to live 125 miles or more from an FCC examination point, later changed to 75 miles with "exceptions for the military and physically disabled." wiki

The Conditional was always subject to retesting at an FCC point, I am not sure if anyone got retested. Also a Conditional license could not be used for an upgrade to Advanced Class, they would have to have a General Class License. In 1978 all Conditional Class licenses were changed to General Class license.

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This makes me smile because the world to me was fascinating in 1960. I thought to contact Germany was such a thrill. So magic may be sucked dry today by so much technology that in fact does much better than HR. The average high school lad has an I phone that can take and broadcast plus post real time pictures to a web site. They can communicate anywhere in the world at any time. We can't do that, and if we could we would soon drop radio as a hobby. No fun, no mystery..
Boston was a huge journey to me living in upstate Vermont. My mother drove me to FCC at age 16 and I took the General and before that had the Conditional (same material and exam as General) just FCC certified. Seems today there really is NO real exam, code gone and answers to very easy questions provided before you sit. ARRL want easier tests? Wow, let just drop any requirement at all because today, de facto, that's what we got. Sad
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KH6AQ
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« Reply #14 on: June 24, 2017, 02:14:48 PM »

I would like to see a written test that was administered by the FCC. I'd like to compare it to a present day exam.

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