How low in the frequency spectrum can Es propagation occur? Does it ever happen on, say, 20m?
Also, when a band like 20, 17, 15 or 10 is open, how can one tell if it's E or F layer propagation occurring?
Can long Es or multihop Es be distinguished from F?
Thanks for any replies.
By distance. Some months ago there was an F skip opening to South America and California on 10 meters. Also at the same time there also was an E-Skip opening with Florida and Vermont.
Vermont and Florida is within E-Skip range here in Kentucky. E-Skip is anywhere from 700 to 1400 miles.
California 2500 miles and South America 5000 miles are within F skip range.
Multi-hop E-skip can occur during the primary E-Skip season late May - July. (And there is a lesser E-Skip peak around December and January.)
Usually there is already an E-Skip opening going on and multi-hop E-Skip forms. This will account for very unusual reception of TV or FM broadcast making the trip all the way over to Europe as it has done on several occasions.
Here is one example of WHCR 88.5 Bangor Maine making it all the way to the UK at a distance of 2710 miles or 4360 KM! The reception was multi hop E-Skip. Notice the date, it was June 26 2003, right smack in the middle of the E-Skip season here in the Northern Hemisphere.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ga56hsHvTCg
Other less extreme examples are transatlantic multi-hop 6 meter reception during the prime of the E-Skip season. This is not F Skip because it is in the middle of the E-Skip season and during a low F Skip period. E-Skip is not dependent on the solar cycle, but F Skip is.
Distance is the easy way to tell...