*composed the same time as the previous posting *

...

As I understand it, the capacity hat normally (when at right angles to the radiator) does not radiate because all the equal currents in the hat cancel. But if the currents are not equal, then does this mean that the capacity hat will radiate? In practice, what implications does this have? Is this a bad thing?

Capacity hats, whether employed in a monopole vertical or at the ends of a doublet do in fact radiate. Anytime one has current flowing through the hat components you're generating a flux field and hence radiation. The key is one needs to design and build the hat(s) so that the antenna system is balanced: currents in one side of the radiator's cap hat swing positive, the corresponding other side swinging negative (with the same magnitude absolute value). So the net effect, radiation-wise, is that in the

**far field** the radiation vectors are nullified. The resultant radiation is then determined by the topological configuration of the main radiator element and by other factors such as height above ground (as for a horizontally polarized dipole).

To function properly, cap hats don't need to be at right angles to their main radiator element. They can be angled. Please see ON4UN LowBand DX'ing Text, section 3.6.2 of chapter Nine. There are diagrams to help in the visualization. The key here is that both sides of the cap hat wire have the same vertex angle.

GL, 73, Rich, K3VAT