can Electret condenser microphone capsules be submerged in water without being damaged and used after they dry up? What about dynamic capsules?
Water is not a friend of electromechanical devices, generally. While you might be able to soak and dry them out and get them to work seemingly OK short-term, there may be long term consequences: corrosion. Metal salts or oxides may form from the moisture. Then again, a microphone does receive a barrage of hot, moist breath, so perhaps not a concern. But, submersion could introduce significant pressure and violate seals.
You could always purchase an inexpensive condenser element for a buck or two and try soaking it. Dynamic elements are more expensive, so test carefully.