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Author Topic: The last of the real Radio Shacks...  (Read 10256 times)
K6LHA
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« Reply #30 on: June 10, 2010, 06:17:20 PM »

When did hams last invent technology? When did hams ever invent technology?
I just could not let these comments go by without a response.
Neither can I.   Cheesy

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I wish that I could write about the numerous projects in which I have been involved as a Sales-Engineer in this century from coast-to-coast where I dealt personally with electronic-engineers, some of whom are active hams, who push the limits of technology.
Well, as one of the electronic engineers who actually DID some of the pushing of the envelope...at Rockedyne, Teledyne Electronics, Hughes Aircraft Missle Division, RCA Corporation (the longest employment time), I'll just have to correct a few things.
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Due to national-security reasons, these hams are prevented from publicly talking about their work.
No.  Corporate Non-Disclosure agreements (in various forms) are the cause.  What you wrote seems to indicate that everything is governed by some ultra-secret National Defense juju but that is only a PART of it.  Corporate policy determines the most.  Oh, and its not just hams who are prevented, it is every single employee of that corporation.

But, you are in Sales, and that can be a factor in attitudes.   Grin

Excuse me, but us workers in the labs, the field representatives who helped the customer make things work, all of us who did all the grunt work prior to the system coming together...we didn't and still don't get enough credit.  The mahogany-row types manage to get more than their share of the pie after final baking.

If you want to see more of the non-sales people and their contributions to the electronics state of the art, just read the Hewlett-Packard Journal from the beginning in 1948 to the end just before the new millennium began.  Those are all on-line, all 3 GB of them.

If that is too corporate-specific, go read the IEEE Spectrum, the IEEE membership magazine published every month.  Or, you can read the Proceedings or the different SIGs which are even more.  While non-radio-specific, the ACM can help you on the origins of other toilers at labs and desks and terminals.

More in the line of radio and sales, you can read the PR of radio corporations doing great, pioneering works for the governments.  Harris has several divisions which explain things far above amateur radio style radios.  ITT has a division which as made most of the most-produced military land forces radios (300K+, haven't looked lately) which are FHSS digital and first operational with the US Army in 1989.  Originally the size of the standard manpack unit, the SIP (SINCGARS Improvement) is half the physical size, can operate in-clear or encrypted, with Net operation built-in, QRP optional, with encryption that is extremely robust.  Its internal time-base can be alternately synchronized with the GPSS through connections with an AN/PSN-11 GPS field set.  Every SINCGARS has a connector for the Plugger on its front panel.
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Separate from that, there is a topic in the public-domain that can be discussed.
Much of what was once classifed as national security iformation has now been released for public dissemination.  If you read the AFCEA magazine you would realize that.  Defense Contract grants have been public domain for decades in USA electronics industry, nothing classifed about them.
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Isn't the latest rage in ham-radio the digital-mode?
No, the RAGE in USA amateur radio is still the zombie OTs who still can't accept Memorandum Report and Order 06-178 released in December 2006.

Now, anyone who can get their hands on the official Policy within the ARRL hierarchy (the one that governs what all USA amateurs must do), should spread that around to let us riff-raff know what we should be doing...besides continuing the same thing hams were doing a half century ago.

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Notable examples are PSK31 and Olivia.
It was Pawel Jalocha, a Polish physicist, SP9VRC, who provided the seed for G3PLX to come up with PSK31. Jalocha created Olivia. Contestia and RTTYM came from Olivia.
The so-called seed (as you insist) came from Claude Elwood Shannon at Bell Labs and his singular seminal paper relating information throughput, noise, bandwidth, and temperature.  Shannon's Law was THE seed to create Information Technology onslaught for the entire communications industry worldwide.
Peter Martinez, G3PLX, has been a constant innovator in electronics since before 1974 and featured several times in Radio Communications, the membership magazine of the RSGB.  You are downplaying Martinez' work on PSK31 which was definitely innovated to work IN amateur radio, not in any commercial venture.  I would suggest a review of the QST article that carried news and details of PSK31, reprinted from the RSGB, about how it came to be.

Information Technology is a special breed of individuals, similar to cryptology, which tries to cram as much information into a circuit as possible, right up to the limit of Shannon's Law.  In a way, amateurs (of a very different kind and without fancy licenses) managed to decrypt the Japanese codes prior to December, 1941, sharing those decrypted intercepts with Allies via the encrypted electro-mechanical TTY links of the USN and USA.  A very small group of American Army and Navy people did that, most of them incapable of reading Japanese.  They never got much recognition, either, just a few higher-ups.  In my opinion, when a group can not only decrypt but build a working terminal without plans, then you have some very special people.  That's all history, available for public consumption back in the 1960s.

Peter Martinez' PSK31 is not any noteworth effort for the electronics-radio world but it is, definitely in my opinion, worthy of more recognition for HIS work IN amateur radio than a pass-off mention that another was the alleged "seed".

Len K6LHA

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KM3K
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« Reply #31 on: June 10, 2010, 08:30:48 PM »

Hi Ken K6LHA,
Please accept that all I was trying to do was comment, without writing a "War and Peace" tome, that hams are indeed inventive.
BTW, concerning the suggestion to read history, I was fortunate enough to help make it this century....from coast-to-coast, when presenting one particular product, I was no longer surprised to hear communication design-engineers and engineering-managers say to me, "Where have you been all my life?". It literally opened doors for me.
73 Jerry KM3K   FN10je
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KE3WD
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« Reply #32 on: June 11, 2010, 06:23:42 PM »

Al Gross, W8PAL, SK

*Inventor of the Walkie Talkie, he also gave us that name for the handheld transceiver. 

*Hired at a very youthful age during WWII to develop 300MHz communication systems (you read that right, UHF) in a very highly classified program the likes of which were not even declassified until relatively recently.  These devices were based on his own experimentation as a teenaged Amateur Radio Operator, in which he and a friend experimented with those "useless" VHF and mostly UHF bands because, as Al famously stated, the cost of components was simply more affordable when the components were that much smaller (than HF). 

*Inventor of CB radio and owner of the first CB radio manufacturing company, "Citizens Radio".  He envisioned something far superior than what CB radio eventually became, but nonetheless was pretty much singularly responsible for the creation of the allocation of the band -- and quite a money making industry with it in which *many* manufacturers and sales outfits enjoyed very handsome profits. 

*Inventor of the paging system. 

Al was also an inventor of quite a few other radio related, communications related and other electronics related devices, holder of patents, etc.  He always attributed his lifelong love of the electronics design craft to his early start in Amateur Radio. 

W8PAL held 12 patents in his name alone.  It has been said that if Al Gross had patented ALL of his inventions and ideas that he would have been far richer than Bill Gates. 

Al never retired, his last work was as a consultant for microwave communications and the like, where he died at (I think) the age of 94 just a few short years ago.  Still active on the hambands, still inventing things.  Always happy to address young people about careers in electronics and, of course Amateur Radio, right to the end. 

http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/gross.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_J._Gross


Not that some CBer that just now got a no-code ham license and posts derogatory crap on internet forums would take notice, mind you...



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K6LHA
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« Reply #33 on: June 12, 2010, 09:39:40 PM »

Al Gross, W8PAL, SK

*Inventor of the Walkie Talkie, he also gave us that name for the handheld transceiver. 

Ahem...the "Walkie Talkie" was the first backpack VHF transceiver designed and first made by Galvin Manufacturing (later Motorola after WWII) for the US military, seeing its first battle test in Italy.  SCR-300/BC-1000.

Before that, Galvin made the first HT in 1940, a crystal controlled transceiver working on low HF.  That was done in response to a US Army invitation to the Chicago company to come on up to Wisconsin where the Army was having maneuvers, to see how their present soldier's radios were used and could Galvin make a better one?  Yes, they did, for 1940 an extremely simple radio barely reaching a mile.  In land warfare a mile is good enough when foot-mobile through unfamiliar terrain.

As far as I'm concerned, both the terms "Walkie-Talkie" and "Handy-Talkie" were just nicknames to arouse interest in the war effort by civilians.

The SCR-300 came later with Dan Noble as its technical chief (I believe hired away from Link) and who would later manage the new semiconductor plant of Motorola that sprang up in the southwest.

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*Hired at a very youthful age during WWII to develop 300MHz communication systems (you read that right, UHF) in a very highly classified program the likes of which were not even declassified until relatively recently."

That sentence I classify as just PR puff-pastry.  Just prior to the USA getting into WWII there were plenty of designers/engineers who were in VHF and UHF...and some into the bottom of the microwave spectrum.  Let's not kid around about vacuum tubes back then...their transit time (electrons from cathode to plate) were generally SLOW and it took some very specialized electron fields to operate at 1 GHz and up.  Check out the "Rad Lab" series of books on the subject, a copyright-free series published by McGraw-Hill.

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  These devices were based on his own experimentation as a teenaged Amateur Radio Operator, in which he and a friend experimented with those "useless" VHF and mostly UHF bands because, as Al famously stated, the cost of components was simply more affordable when the components were that much smaller (than HF).
Riiiiiight...he and his buddy just went down to the local (pre-Radio Shack) stores and bought VHF/UHF parts "off-the-shelf?"  BS. 

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*Inventor of CB radio and owner of the first CB radio manufacturing company, "Citizens Radio".  He envisioned something far superior than what CB radio eventually became, but nonetheless was pretty much singularly responsible for the creation of the allocation of the band -- and quite a money making industry with it in which *many* manufacturers and sales outfits enjoyed very handsome profits.
Well, the "first CB radio manufacturing company" evidently went broke or got sold at the beginning of the USA manufacturing boom...before the imports started arriving on the market later.

There was a lot of experimentation at the top frequencies of HF since 1931 or so along with several ideas by many not surnamed Gross.  I could give you a more complete chronology of that but the OT zombies in this website wouldn't like it since most of them are anti-CB bigots anyway.    Grin

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*Inventor of the paging system.
Really?  He was working at Bell Labs when they came out with their "Bell Boy" pocket-sized pager?  That "Bell Boy" was described in BSTJ (Bell System Technical Journal, a usually-monthly periodical from AT&T. 

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Al was also an inventor of quite a few other radio related, communications related and other electronics related devices, holder of patents, etc.  He always attributed his lifelong love of the electronics design craft to his early start in Amateur Radio.
That's a popular saying.  The sayer is trying to identify with others, thereby getting hisself somehow mentally related to ingenuity. 

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W8PAL held 12 patents in his name alone.  It has been said that if Al Gross had patented ALL of his inventions and ideas that he would have been far richer than Bill Gates.
I don't think so.  In the 1970s an electronics patent cost about $6000, almost all of that due to the Patent Search and Patent Attorney fees.  In the 1950s it might have been down to $4000 each.  The reason I know this is from working at RCA Corporation in the 1960s to 1970s and talking to their legal staff visiting out far-off California division.  In the 1960s and before, if you worked for a corporation, an inventor usually got shafted for any invention related to work.  Our group at RCA EASD came up with a heap of patents granted since we were on a corporate R&D project.  My patent for radio is US 3,848,191 granted in 1974.  Got a whole $200 in compensation (with about $50 deduction for regular paycheck stuff).  I can get you the patent numbers on all the others if you like.

Bill Gates...and Paul Allen started making money by the ton when they arranged to get their MS OS into the new IBM PC down in Boca Raton, FL.  It was IBM's gaffe or bad thinking, just like the Xerox mahogany row's decision to drop the GUI and "mouse" idea that their PARC invented (Palo Alto Research Center in California).  Both of those Xerox things were used on Apple's Macintosh and gave Apple respectability in business.

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Al never retired, his last work was as a consultant for microwave communications and the like, where he died at (I think) the age of 94 just a few short years ago.  Still active on the hambands, still inventing things.  Always happy to address young people about careers in electronics and, of course Amateur Radio, right to the end.
Sort of like that consultant who started 73 magazine, right?   Grin 

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Not that some CBer that just now got a no-code ham license and posts derogatory crap on internet forums would take notice, mind you...
Wow, a real anti-CB bigot and one who just can't live down FCC 06-178, ey?   Grin

No problem to me.  I keyed on my first HF transmitter in early February 1953 (1 KW BC-339 running FSK RTTY)...then would soon graduate to the 35 other HF transmitters that were in an Army station in Tokyo.  Oh, yeah, and CB on 11m wasn't law yet until 1958...but I didn't get one until 1960...fit real nice in my Austin-Healey sports car.  Want a picture of it?   Grin

Yes, I know I'm morally reprehensible for not expressing deep love and respect for mighty CW, the king of the airwaves or something.  I'll just bumble along using voice, digital, frequencies well above HF and some things still experimental.
Not necessarily mine.  I was a professional since 1952, now I'm an unpaid amateur, made to sit in the back of the radio bus with all the evil CBers and unwashed riff-raff who aren't saintly priests of the morse mode.

Gosh, I might even go into a Radio Shack store on Sunday just to see what kind of consumer items they have...  Grin

73, Len K6LHA
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N2EY
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« Reply #34 on: June 13, 2010, 05:24:26 AM »

Al Gross, W8PAL, SK

*Inventor of CB radio and owner of the first CB radio manufacturing company, "Citizens Radio".  He envisioned something far superior than what CB radio eventually became, but nonetheless was pretty much singularly responsible for the creation of the allocation of the band -- and quite a money making industry with it in which *many* manufacturers and sales outfits enjoyed very handsome profits. 

The cb radio W8PAL invented was UHF (460-470 MHz), which eventually became FRS/GMRS. He conducted experiments at 250 MHz in 1944-45, then on 460-470 MHz 1945-1948. When UHF cb was authorized in 1948, he got license #1 (19W0001, issued March 22, 1948). 27 MHz cb came a decade later.

What he envisioned for cb and what eventually resulted were two very different things.

W8PAL earned his amateur radio license at the age of 16, in 1934. He invented and patented the hand-held "walkie-talkie" transceiver in 1938 - at the age of 20.

http://hamgallery.com/Tribute/W8PAL/

73 de Jim, N2EY
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K6LHA
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« Reply #35 on: June 13, 2010, 01:51:41 PM »

Al Gross, W8PAL, SK

The cb radio W8PAL invented was UHF (460-470 MHz), which eventually became FRS/GMRS. He conducted experiments at 250 MHz in 1944-45, then on 460-470 MHz 1945-1948. When UHF cb was authorized in 1948, he got license #1 (19W0001, issued March 22, 1948). 27 MHz cb came a decade later.

Gross experimented on 260 MHz prior to the USA getting into WWII.  There aren't many details of that found in texts or the Internet.  The (very cheaply made) "465 MHz" production unit (I had one-half of a pair for a few years) used a "modulated super-regenerative" (one tube) RF section plus some audio amplifiers.  It was state-of-the-art for its time...which is to say primitive.  To be kind, it was junk.

As to the claims of Gross starting CB, that is also, to be kind, junk.  From the Retrocom website, Tom Kneitel, K2AES, wrote a 27 Megacycle History in the U.S. which stated other things:

In 1938, Herbert Brooks, W9SDG of Port Wing, WI, wrote to the editor of QST, published in November, 1938, issue describing a theoretical "Citizens Radio Service" nearly identical to what we know today.

In 1944, speaking at the FCC frequency allocation hearings held during late 1944, Rear Admiral Stanford C. Hooper presented a draft of an obscure project proposing a band of frequencies be set aside for veterans returning home from WWII.  The thought was that many returning vets possessed the technical knowledge, ideas & skills to create a new industry based on personal communications.

In 1945, just after Admiral Hooper's plan was announced, the FCC announced CB docket #6651.  FCC Commisioner E.K.Jett outlined his vision of CB in the July issue of the Saturday Evening Post magazine.

In 1947, at the Atlantic City Conference, amateurs would get a new band at 15m in 1952 and the 11m band would be shared with Industrial, Scientific, and Medical devices and 465 MHz is allocated for the first UHF CB.  Doctors would be permitted to continue using 11m for (mainly) diathermy.  In that same year, John M. Mulligan activated experimental station W2XQD and, using homemade equipment was able to maintain spotty communications on UHF at 465 MHz.

In 1948 the very first type acceptance certificate was awarded to Citzens Radio Corporation (headed by Al Gross) for their model 100-B 465 MHz CB transceiver.

[about 9 years went by with no significant interest in UHF CB and no market interest and Citizens Radio Corporation went bust]

In 1957 the FCC came up with Docket 11994 that outlined the first Class C (model radio-control) and Class D (AM voice) allocations from 26.96 to 27.23 MHz (USA only).  On 11 September 1958 the 11m CB allocation became law.

In the March, 1959, issue of Radio and Television News magazine, Donald L. Stoner published a complete article on constructing a homemade 11m CB transceiver complete with component layout and alignment instructions.  This sparked an upward jump in USA production, nearly every USA radio industry coming out with their own CB transceiver model.  Millions of transceivers for 11m would be made.

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W8PAL earned his amateur radio license at the age of 16, in 1934. He invented and patented the hand-held "walkie-talkie" transceiver in 1938 - at the age of 20.
There is no record of such a patent in either USA or Canadian records.  The trademark of "handie-talkie" was filed 24 June 1948 by Motorola and granted on 22 May 1951, registry number 71560123.  There is no record for "walkie-talkie" or similar-spelling words in USA or Canadian patent or trademark agencies.  Gross was born in Canada.

Another Canadian, Donald Lewis Hings, P.Eng, M.B.E., C.M., can be considered to be the real first-inventor of the Walkie-Talkie back in 1937.  Designed as a waterproof emergency radio it was self-contained, could float, and developed for a Canadian mining corporation which required aircraft to access its many sites.
Hings' version used upward modulation AM that jumped the carrier power on speech amplitude peaks. That Model C58 transceiver would be modified for Canadian Army Signals use when Canada entered WWII in 1939.  Hings only had (by my count) 73 patents in electronics and didn't charm journalists such as Gross or the founder of 73 magazine did as being consultants.

Hings didn't make anything useful for the OSS (a USA group) during WWII but was a true consultant for the real "Philadelphia Experiment" which involved trying to stealth a warship from radar, not some fictional time-travel nonsense as depicted in the movie of the same name.

I'm sure that Al Gross was clever and inventive, but myths have to be corrected.

Dang, now I've used up all my allocated Sunday time and I'll have to wait until Monday to visit a Radio Shack store...  Grin

K6LHA

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WX7G
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« Reply #36 on: June 13, 2010, 05:34:50 PM »

The early history of the walkie-talkie is fascinating and the reports on it are in conflict.

http://www.hyperstealth.com/DonHings/first

This paper, which appears to be quite detailed, does seem to credit Gross with the term "Handie-Talkie" in 1938. This author disputes claims that Gross received patents yet MIT claims that Gross received a dozen patents on such a device. Without a patent number one cannot search the USPTO site for expired patents.

"First use of Walkie-Talkie name – Unknown. It may have been created by a number of people without the knowledge of others. Currently the first historical reference we have is in a 1941 Toronto News Paper referring to Donald L. Hings C-18 Canadian Military prototype as a Walkie Talkie."

From TALK the WALK or WALK the TALK, Guy Cramer.

--------------------------
Does anyone know of a backpack or handheld CW transmitter/receiver before this? Perhaps a back pack spark transmitter?
 

« Last Edit: June 13, 2010, 05:39:22 PM by DAVE CUTHBERT » Logged
WX7G
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« Reply #37 on: June 13, 2010, 06:25:20 PM »

Len, K6LHA, we see among the early radio pioneers a large number of amateur radio operators. First came the amateur who then evolved into the engineer. What is it that these men had in common? Telegraphy or as we call it nowadays, CW. Thomas Edison was a telegrapher before he became a famous and prolific inventor. Claude Elwood Shannon, while not to my knowledge an amateur radio operator, did construct a telegraph that he and a friend used to communicate as teenagers. Gross, and others were skilled at telegraphy.

Is there a correlation between skill in telegraphy and creativity? There might well be. Think how much more productive and inventive your career might have been had you learned CW as a wee lad.
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K6LHA
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« Reply #38 on: June 13, 2010, 08:56:01 PM »

The early history of the walkie-talkie is fascinating and the reports on it are in conflict.

http://www.hyperstealth.com/DonHings/first

This paper, which appears to be quite detailed, does seem to credit Gross with the term "Handie-Talkie" in 1938. This author disputes claims that Gross received patents yet MIT claims that Gross received a dozen patents on such a device. Without a patent number one cannot search the USPTO site for expired patents.

"First use of Walkie-Talkie name – Unknown. It may have been created by a number of people without the knowledge of others. Currently the first historical reference we have is in a 1941 Toronto News Paper referring to Donald L. Hings C-18 Canadian Military prototype as a Walkie Talkie."

Had you read the Cramer article well enough, you would have found out it was the newspaperman interviewing Hings.

K6LHA
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K6LHA
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« Reply #39 on: June 13, 2010, 09:36:53 PM »

Len, K6LHA, we see among the early radio pioneers a large number of amateur radio operators. First came the amateur who then evolved into the engineer.

If your only sources of radio operator information are amateur radio oriented, then
you will get a jaundiced viewpoint.  Not my problem.  In all my years in the aerospace electronics industry of southern California, and including way too many visits to commercial and government places in the rest of the USA, I doubt that even five percent of my fellow engineers were ever licensed radio amateurs.  Yet they thought that electronics was fascinating enough to get into it on their own...without fantasizing that they were radio pioneers.

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Is there a correlation between skill in telegraphy and creativity?

Medical science hasn't found one yet.

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Think how much more productive and inventive your career might have been had you learned CW as a wee lad.

WTF that mean?!?  Illustrative art never involved telegraphy.  My "career" was good enough for me, enough money, enough female companionship, mortagage paid off in only 20 years, no debts and now I'm married to my high school sweetheart.

Are you fantasizing you are Hugh Hefner?  Or some judge at the National Science Foundation?  A distaff cousin of the "Incredibles" family using a telegraph key to invoke your super powers?    Grin

Hello?  This forum topic was concerning "The last of the real Radio Shacks," not some self-defined pshrink-wrapped rapper whose mind is drunk on League liquor, well beyond the REAL pioneers' times.  It wasn't me who tried vainly to change the subject.  All I did was add some facts that disputed a Gross publicist's florid flowery array.

By the way, Thomas Edison went bankrupt three times despite his many inventions and didn't invent any improvements to wired telegraphy nor experimented with any early 'radio.'  He didn't believe in alternating current.  He didn't invent Radio Shack.  Every hard-core ARRL member knows that Hiram P. Maxim invented amateur radio, the publishing business, and radio amateurism.

Claude E. Shannon did not use any OOK CW telegraphy in his seminal paper, just a TTY, the old style of 60 WPM throughput.  He didn't invent Radio Shack either.

73, Len K6LHA (never licensed as anything but Amateur Extra in hobby radio)

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« Reply #40 on: June 14, 2010, 09:29:40 AM »

Len, K6LHA, you are always good for a laugh. Welcome back to eham.
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K6LHA
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« Reply #41 on: June 14, 2010, 11:01:07 AM »

Len, K6LHA, you are always good for a laugh. Welcome back to eham.

Back a long time during WWII, I used to listen to a program on radio for kids called "Let's Pretend."  I got tired of it quickly.  Lo and behold, "Let's Pretend" is still on radio!  But it is amateur radio, not broadcast.
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« Reply #42 on: June 14, 2010, 02:30:52 PM »

Len, K6LHA, you are always good for a laugh. Welcome back to eham.

Back a long time during WWII, I used to listen to a program on radio for kids called "Let's Pretend."  I got tired of it quickly.  Lo and behold, "Let's Pretend" is still on radio!  But it is amateur radio, not broadcast.

You think radio shack is pretending to be a electronics store? Did you find any CW keys in there Len? You think Jim collects their old (those from the 70's) catalogs?
« Last Edit: June 14, 2010, 02:43:43 PM by Terry L. Perry » Logged
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« Reply #43 on: June 14, 2010, 04:04:22 PM »

Len, K6LHA, you are right that broadcast radio and amateur radio are very different. With the former we have costly, high ERP stations transmitting one way over a distance of up to one ionospheric hop to listeners having no special skills. With the latter we have low cost, low ERP stations establishing two way communications world wide with the participants having special skills such as CW. Easy vs. hard; slam dunk vs. struggle; skill-free vs. skill. 

Now that you're a ham you have moved into the ranks of the real radio communicators.

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K6LHA
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« Reply #44 on: June 15, 2010, 11:13:03 AM »

Now that you're a ham you have moved into the ranks of the real radio communicators.

Sorry, old man, but I was in the ranks of the real radio communicators back in early February 1953.  Literally.   Grin

You want links?  I can send you a couple via e-mail attachment if your e-mail provider can handle 6MB files.  One is a nice photo-essay that I authored, the other is a digitized booklet produced by my former Signal Corps Battalion describing the station I was at four years later.  The first was checked by a retired Army/USAF civilian engineer who was there at the time and who also sent me the booklet that I digitized.

That station, later moved to Hawaii along with the Hq of USARPAC, handled an average of 250,000 messages a month during the active part of the Korean War, down to about 220,000 messages a month by 1955.  Do you think that such traffic isn't real communications?  I'm sure you do.

Well, you don't think that the Radio Shack are real radio stores either...because they don't sell code keys!  Hay-suss, old man, times have changed since 57 years ago and its time (way late, in fact) that you ought to change with them.  Quit pretending this is all some infantile Let's Pretend radio program.  Quit trying to talk down to everyone you consider new to radio and become an adult.

18.25, Len K6LHA
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