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Author Topic: A good ground....  (Read 2737 times)
KB1USP
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Posts: 4




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« on: July 27, 2012, 09:05:09 PM »

Howdy all!  A newbie here with a newbie question!

I have been on HF just a couple of months with an outside dipole/wire. 

I never bothered with the ground...and I know I need to correct that.

I was told a piece of copper pipe (the kind they used to use in home plumbing) installed vertically into the ground would be the best thing for me.  I am operating on 2Meters thru 160 meters with a TS2000 and about 100 watts. 

My questions...

1.)  How long should the copper pipe be...and how deep into the ground (How much left out of the ground), would be best?

2.)  What's the diameter of the pipe I should use? 

3.)  Does it need to be a certain length away from the foundation of the house? 

4.)  How can I bang it into the ground?  (I am thinking copper piping is somewhat soft...and will probably bend when I whack it into the ground, no?)

Thanks for your help!

David


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ZL1BBW
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Posts: 355




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« Reply #1 on: July 27, 2012, 10:57:44 PM »

Why not use one of those steel house electric earthing spikes, they drive in real well.  I am just using a piece of 1" galv pipe.
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ex MN Radio Officer, Portishead Radio GKA, BT Radio Amateur Morse Tester.  Licensed as G3YCP ZL1DAB, now taken over my father (sk) call as ZL1BBW.
KP4UFO
Member

Posts: 12




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« Reply #2 on: July 27, 2012, 11:09:03 PM »

1
Amateur Radio Station Grounding
RCC Mar 2007 - Lane Giard, N7ZXP
This article comes from Don Young, N7DY, which was in The Wenatchee Radio Club News
letter.
A good ground system is an essential part of a good ham station for various reasons. First and
foremost, grounding is for the safety of your family, home, and ham equipment. Lightning not
only destroys ham radios, but often starts house fires, thereby jeopardizing the safety of your
family. An elevated antenna or a tower protruding into the atmosphere naturally increases the
odds of a lightning strike. Statistically, most lightning damage comes from the AC power or
telephone lines running into your home.
Simple ham station grounding is often done with a water pipe. Indeed a metallic cold water pipe
can serve as a basic ground for ham gear. Since outside water pipes normally are buried well
below the soil’s surface, it does serve some purpose. Remember, though, that a cold water pipe
ground should be considered merely one level above a no-ground system at all. You can do
much better. A fact significant to hams is that a good ground will not only increase the receiver’s
sensitivity, but also its transmitting propagation. I have often observed a decrease in
surrounding ambient noise from S9 to S5 on 40 meters by simply changing the station’s ground
by changing a cold water pipe ground using 12 gauge wires to a proper RF grounding system.
Your regular ham contacts will usually notice the improvement to your signal. As you probably
know, HF antennas work best when they work against a good counterpoise ground reference.
Good RF grounding technique is misunderstood and difficult to explain in simple terms. It is a
basic phenomenon of impedance. RF grounding requirements are very real, somewhat difficult
to measure, and unseen in operation. A common term that is used in RF grounding is “skin
effect.” In a ground system the majority of electrons run along the surface (or skin) of the
conductor. A good RF ground has the least amount of resistance to electrons being conducted
to ground. This is obtained by having the largest amount of conducting surface area that is
practical. The goal of a good RF ground system is to obtain as little resistance as possible from
the antenna/tower to ground and then from the radio to ground. Thus, the more conductor
surface area the more ground path conductivity. Effective grounding is measurable. A good
grounding system will measure less than 12 ohms from the radio to ground. A typical cold water
pipe ground will measure fewer than 35 ohms, assuming the water pipes are not made of PVC.
Measurement is both rare and difficult since most hams do not have a ‘Megger’ type instrument
required to make the measurement accurately. For this reason for some, a well planned and
properly installed ground system is the best alternative. Even without an actual measurement
you’ll know it’s as good as you can provide within your means. This paper will assist you by
giving examples of relatively good RF ground systems that are often within the means of the
average ham. OK then, here we go. Several things need to be contemplated before deciding on
your plans for an RF grounding system.
* You should consider your budget and the amount of effort that you are willing to invest to
obtain a good RF grounding system. It is not to your advantage to be cheap or lazy – if so, you
might just as well use the cold water pipe. Then be prepared to buy new equipment when you
get your first lightning strike.
* Dissimilar metals (as it pertains to electrolyzing/galvanic action) can pose a significant problem
to the systems’ longevity and minimizing maintenance issues to your ground system. One rule is
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ANGEL L ARCE TORRES
KP4UFO
Member

Posts: 12




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« Reply #3 on: July 27, 2012, 11:16:19 PM »

2
NEVER connect copper to galvanized or aluminum towers - use a stainless steel interface
Between the two metals with a stainless steel clamp, bolt, washer, and nut!
* Copper oxide (the greenish copper corrosion) is NOT conductive! Eventually compression
Clamps WILL allow corrosion to migrate into joints, causing a reduction in conductivity and
Increase the connections’ overall resistance. Weld or solder ALL joints, when possible. This will
Ensure long life and maintain stable good conductivity between connections. If a stainless steel
Clamp is used, a conductive grease is required to minimize connection moisture degradation.
* Eliminate ground loops and multi-point ground connections when possible. A ham shack
Ground loop gives lightning another path to your equipment. Always use a single-point ground
Between the interior and exterior of your ham shack.
* Run your coax/hard-lines to the base of your tower or antenna mast and directly connect to the
Coax/hard-line shield clamps to the tower/mast base. This will allow the lightning to get as close
To the actual ground connection before attempting to enter the house. When creating a drip
Bend in coax/hard-line, use a minimum radius of nine inches for the curves.
* Grounding-rod depths are critical. You can find the recommended grounding depth by
Checking your local plumbing or building codes. In central Wisconsin the minimum depth is six
Feet, in central Texas it is eight feet, and in part of Arizona it is ten feet-so check that out. The
Ideal grounding situation is in having your ground system make physical contact with the water
Table, but this is not very likely.
Grounding Rods vs. Pipes
Due to economics and the effort required to drive rods, I’ve taken another approach in lieu of
Rods. (Besides four foot rods are worthless as they do not make enough soil contact for an
Adequate safety ground, much less an RF ground.) I use ten foot pieces of 0.5" copper pipe
Fitted with a brass hose fitting. I purchase a brass hose fitting from a local hardware store and
Solder this fitting to the end of the copper pipe. This allows me to attach a garden water hose
And easily hydra-drill the copper pipe into the soil. No mallet or “T” post sledge for me. (Most of
The time) I dug a one foot square deep hole in the ground where the ground pipe is to be drilled.
I drilled the pipe into the ground until the pipe top was 6" below the surface of the ground. This
Allowed working room to solder the copper tubing and then cover the hole, making it invisible to
All and your lawn mower.
Ground Conductor Copper Buss-Bar vs. Soft Copper Tubing
Again, due to the economics and availability of copper bussbar material, I found the costs to be
Prohibitive to a normal ham’s budget. Instead, I use soft copper tubing that is easily obtained at
Your local hardware stores. The tradeoff is the amount of surface area the copper tubing will
Have in comparison to copper buss-bars. I highly recommend that you use 0.5" copper tubing
For short runs, I.e. 10', or as your budget will allow - but attempt to keep the conductor surface
Area high as near to 1.0" copper tubing as you can afford. Remember, the more surface area,
The better the ground conductivity. I use soft copper tubing for practical reasons and ease of
Use. Where a soldered or clamped connection is to be made, I hammer the tubing flat. Then
Using vice-grips, I wrap the flattened tubing very tight around the copper ground pipe/rod and
Make a good soldered connection. The copper tubing is buried at least 6" deep. This will keep
You from hitting the ground system with the lawn mower or becoming a trip hazard. The buried
Copper tubing is also part of the energy dissipating ground system. In using buried interconnect
Bare copper tubing, the whole “ground system” conductivity can be increased by watering the



Lawn, as the near surface soil conductivity will increase. Watering should be done whenever you

Contest or when the soil becomes very dry.

Ground Plate

This item is controversial to some; few hams want to mount or put a fair sized hole in the side of

Their house. The ground plate is a solid barrier to possible lightning entering your house via your

Coax/cables. Also this ground plate is the fundamental item that creates your “single point”

Ground and gives you the proper place to install other protective devices, I.e. Rotor cable

Protector, telephone line protector, etc. I recommend that the ground plate be made from 0.125"

Stainless steel. The dimensions depend on how many protectors will be mounted. Stainless

Steel eliminates the dissimilar metals’ concern and allows for direct copper attachment. If you do

Not want to actually mount the plate into the wall of the house, then mount the plate ON the

House perpendicular to the wall very near to the coax ham shack entrance. Run the coaxes on

One side of the plate, clear of the house entrance, then from the opposite side of the plate run

The cables and internal station ground conductor into the house. Connect the ground plate to a

Ground pipe that is within three feet of the house. The closer the connection between the

Nearest ground pipe and the ground plate, the better the conductivity. I would use 1" or three

5/8" copper tubing pieces between these two points and then reduce the copper tubing size to

The other ground pipes. The ground plate is also used for mounting bulkhead surge/lightning

Protectors. The only such protection that I have used is the PolyPhaser brand.

The PolyPhaser blocks and/or redirects the energy surge directly to your ground system. There

Are other brands of such protective devices that I haven’t used. This type of protective device is

Your last and perhaps best line of defense. Obviously, use of these devices will require that you

Install a good enough ground system to fully dissipate the energy. One of the biggest issues

Facing you is HOW MANY ground pipes/rods should you install?

This is hard to determine, as it is based on soil conduction, how potent is the lightning strike,

How much room do you have, and what can you afford. If you look at a commercial system, they

Have multiple ground radials (seven or more) each 32 feet long and four ground rods on each

Radial. Some of the ground rods can be sunk as deep as 40 feet. Well, this is not in my budget

Or in most hams! Obviously, the more ground radials and ground rods the better. I try to run at

Least three ground rods in a non-tower ham shack. One directly outside the ham shack at the

Coax cable entrance point (the shack ground), and at least two more ground radials with ground

Rods at their ends, separated by at least eight feet, from the shack ground. The tower increases

The potential of a lightning strike, so in addition to the above scenario, two or more rods should

Be placed just for the tower. Put one rod near the tower base and the other rod eight feet away.

Use 1" or two 5/8" pieces of copper tubing between the first tower rod and the tower. The goal

Of a grounding rod is to make contact with the water table. Falling short of that, it is to dissipate

As much energy as possible by driving the ground rod directly down, attempting to traverse as

Many soil layers as possible, so energy can be dissipated into these various soil layers. Some

Soils conduct better than others, dry sand being the worst, followed by hard clay. But a hard clay

Layer may have some amount of water riding on the clay, seeking penetration points.

Placing the ground rod at a 45° angle can increase the overall length of the radial and allow

Some energy to be dissipated. Angled ground rods are often used in rocky soil. The interior

Ground conductor is just as important as the exterior ground system. I have 5/8" copper pipe on

The back of my bench. I use ½” tinned copper strap coming from each piece of equipment to the

Pipe. From the pipe, I use 1” tinned copper strap to go outdoors to my ground rods. All my

Equipment grounds go to a central point (pipe) and then go outdoors with one strap. No daisy

4

Chaining. Most radio equipment comes with an extruding bolt, washers, and a wing-nut - if not

Find a good chassis screw to place the braid with washer beneath.

The goal is to have an effective ground connection with short ground straps and to keep a clean

Unobtrusive appearance to the ham shack.


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ANGEL L ARCE TORRES
K1CJS
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Posts: 5885




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« Reply #4 on: July 28, 2012, 06:33:28 AM »

An 8 foot grounding rod, available at any electrical supply shop and most home improvement stores, will do the job for you.  That rod, driven in so just the last couple of inches of rod is exposed usually works well unless your soil is dry.  If that is the case, you may need to extend that ground rod further down into the earth.

That is the first step in a good ground system. You also should have some sort of lightning arrestor in each coax coming from an antenna with all of them also grounded to that ground rod.  The most important thing is to make sure that ground rod is bonded to the house electrical system ground rod so YOU will not inadvertantly become the connection between them--through your rigs.
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KB1USP
Member

Posts: 4




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« Reply #5 on: July 28, 2012, 01:59:10 PM »


An 8 foot grounding rod, available at any electrical supply shop and most home improvement stores, will do the job for you.  That rod, driven in so just the last couple of inches of rod is exposed usually works well unless your soil is dry. 

Thanks!  A couple of questions left...

Does it need to be a certain length away from the foundation of the house?

How can I drive it into the ground?  (I am thinking copper piping is somewhat soft...and will probably bend when I whack it into the ground, no?)

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K2OWK
Member

Posts: 1041




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« Reply #6 on: July 28, 2012, 03:49:00 PM »

Most standard length commercial grounding rods are copper clad steel and are 8 or 10 foot in length. The length depends on the soil conductivity. I would keep it about 2 feet or so from the house foundation. I drive mine a few inches below ground level, mostly so I will not trip over it.

The copper clad steel rod is quite hard. The best way to drive it in is with a slide hammer made for that purpose. It is sometimes possable to borrow one from the power company or telephone company. To buy one is about $100.00. If you can not get a slide hammer, a 5 pound or heaver sledge hammer will also work. It will take a while depending upon the soil density. Clay is a bear, sand is easy, but perseverance will eventually get it done.

Don,t forget to tie it to your house grounding system a must, and for best results install a lightning arrester.

73s

K2OWK
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K9KJM
Member

Posts: 2416




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« Reply #7 on: July 28, 2012, 08:35:44 PM »

As pointed out, Most discount type home supply stores will have the correct item, A 8 or 10 foot steel ground rod that has the heavy copper cladding.  Around here, The 8 foot version either 1/2" or 5/8" are within pennies of each other at just over 10 bucks each.
The hollow copper tubing will work ONLY if you live in an area where your soil is mostly just loose sand so it can be driven in.

The same home suppy store will have a fence post driver,  (Slide hammer) Those sell for about 19 bucks brand new, Or as pointed out, Some places rent them out.

Soft copper tubing that comes in rolls can work well as a ground conductor (Wire) IF you are careful to not kink it.  Make any bends gradual. (1/4" copper tubing almost gives the surface area of #2 solid copper wire)  You can hammer the ends of the copper tubing flat to drill it etc for connections.

For some tips on how to do it on a low budget:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/14868226/lightning-protectiontaming-thors-thunderon-a-budget

(Give that site plenty of time to load)
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KC4MOP
Member

Posts: 729




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« Reply #8 on: July 29, 2012, 05:09:01 AM »

The short and long of grounding.
Lightning protection for your station.
One ground rod outside where the electric enters the house. If you ever erect a tower, have several rods around the tower all bonded together and connected to each leg of the tower. And run heavy gauge stranded or wide copper strap from the tower ground to the house/shack ground system, so they are bonded together.
Include your electrical system on the ground rod, if not already connected.
Run a #8 stranded into your shack from the ground rod and INDIVIDUALLY connect each piece of Ham gear to that #8 and that is about all that is needed.
If you are having RFI then it is from the antenna system and not grounding. Antenna is too close to your house and neighbors. Resonant dipoles are your friends. Multiband dipoles fed by ladder line and using a tuner are friendly also.
You'll find out what bands affect your household electronics and the neighbors. And it works the other way too. Plasma TVs and switching power supplies.
But welcome to the challenge and fun of HF.
Fred
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K1PJR
Member

Posts: 121




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« Reply #9 on: July 29, 2012, 05:17:29 AM »

David

I'm no expert but I've read a lot of articles on grounding. There are three types of grounds: Electrical, lightening and RF.  Assuming your home electrical is wired properly you are OK as far as an electrical ground is concerned. Add a lightening arrestor to you antenna and a ground rod (which should be connected to you home wiring ground) and you've taken care of that issue.  The last is your RF ground.  Ground radials solve that if you have an unbalanced antenna.  If your using a dipole an RF ground is not needed.

If you have taken care of the above then why ground your equipment?  All it does is increase the chance that your ground wire may become a radiator of RF.  I still not sure what the purpose is of grounding your equipment. Many articles I've read say it serves no purpose. So far I haven't and everything seems OK. If someone can explain the purpose of grounding station equipment I would really appreciate it.  I'm still unclear about this.

73
Phil
K1PJR
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W8JI
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Posts: 9304


WWW

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« Reply #10 on: July 29, 2012, 07:01:32 AM »

I was told a piece of copper pipe (the kind they used to use in home plumbing) installed vertically into the ground would be the best thing for me.  I am operating on 2Meters thru 160 meters with a TS2000 and about 100 watts. 


Dave,

be very careful with advice. There are some articles that give terrible advice. Clues of a bad article, or of very bad advice, is if an article or person tells you:

1.) Driving a rod in is all you need to do, and will make things safer. That is almost totally false.

2.) A ground rod will reduce noise or help transmission. If a ground rod reduces noise or helps transmission, you have a different problem that should be corrected.

A ground rod to the desk should make NO DIFFERENCE at all in noise or transmission, and to make things safer it has to be bonded to your power mains ground. Any ground also should connect to the cable ENTRANCE, not directly to the desk!   

Quote
My questions...

1.)  How long should the copper pipe be...and how deep into the ground (How much left out of the ground), would be best?

How long depends on your soil, but length is NOT nearly as important as HOW the rod connects to the mains. The required depth can vary a great deal, and usually it takes more than one rod.

One of the very worse things you can do is drive a rod in and connect it to the desk without bonding the rod to the mains ground.


Quote
2.)  What's the diameter of the pipe I should use? 


It depends on the soil and what you use for a rod. I'd say 1/2 inch minimum.

Quote
3.)  Does it need to be a certain length away from the foundation of the house? 


It depends on the soil, and the foundation, and what else you have for a ground.

Quote
4.)  How can I bang it into the ground?  (I am thinking copper piping is somewhat soft...and will probably bend when I whack it into the ground, no?)

Whatever you use has to be hammered in, otherwise it loosens the soil are reduces contact.

What you must be careful of is listening to bad advice, of which there is far too much. A ground rod, in and of itself, is about useless for anything. It can actually make things less safe.

National fire and electrical codes REQUIRE all cables entering to enter through a grounded entrance panel. These safety and fire codes REQUIRE the ground rod to be bonded to your power mains ground. 

One of the very last things you should ever do is run an isolated rod through a wire to the desk. Doing so will generally increase chances of equipment damage. If you get any advice, or read any advice, telling you to ground the desk equipment to an outside ground, it is best to run away from that advice as fast as you can!

If running a ground changes reception or transmission, it strongly indicates you have an antenna system or wiring problem. The best advice is to read about it a little first, but keep in mind what people used to think and do in the 1950's is not a good thing today.

http://www.w8ji.com/ground_systems.htm

73 Tom



 

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K1CJS
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Posts: 5885




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« Reply #11 on: July 29, 2012, 08:15:23 AM »

Does it need to be a certain length away from the foundation of the house?

The closer it is to the foundation of the house, the harder it may be to drive the ground rod in.  The reason for that is the rocks that are frequently used in older foundations may well extend out somewhat from the foundation itself.  With newer houses with poured foundations, sometimes rocks are used to fill the outside area where the foundfation was poured.  Two to three feet, as someone pointed out, may do well.  If you do hit a rock (the rod won't want to go in any further) pull it out and try again.

Quote
How can I drive it into the ground?  (I am thinking copper piping is somewhat soft...and will probably bend when I whack it into the ground, no?

Copper piping is quite soft, and will either bend or split if you try to drive it in.  A copper clad ground rod is actually steel with a copper covering, and those can be driven in with no fear of destroying it.  If your soil is sandy, you may be able to drive in a copper pipe, but I wouldn't count on it.  I would not use copper piping unless you were going to dig a deep hole, place the pipe in it and backfill it.  It isn't worth the effort since the pipe wouild probably rot away after a few years.

As I said, that is only the first step in a good, reliable ground system for your shack.  You canget more info by visiting the sites mentioned, or if you haven't done so yet, get a copy of the ARRL Handbook.  Getting a brand new copy isn't really necessary, a copy that is a few years old will do fine for the information on setting up a station and a grounding system.  That manual will also provide answers to quite a lot of the question you may have.  It really is an almost essential part of any ham shack.
« Last Edit: July 29, 2012, 08:18:47 AM by K1CJS » Logged
WA2NTW
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Posts: 1




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« Reply #12 on: July 29, 2012, 09:21:29 AM »

As pointed out by others the first thing a ground is intended to do is prevent you from getting blown away by a high voltage/high current strike in the area caused by lightning. If you are unfortunate enough to have a direct hit it just might prevent your house from becoming a total loss. I dealt with public safety sites in some difficult locations and will be happy to show you the results of lightning hits.

Use a 5/8" 10 foot copper clad rod. Drive it in with a sledge hammer or the rod driver. I would use more than one rod if you live in a high strike area. They all should be bonded together and the connections checked EVERY year. If they become corroded clean them and/or replace the wire. Some prefer to use a solid wire but I prefer a multi strand wire for more surface area. If you can find someone who has a ground tester borrow it once you have
the rods in place and check to see how low your resistance is...the lower the better.

Bringing cables and ground into your house can be tricky, I like the plate idea because it
is accessible and if you do get hit you can check and replace failed items. I too like the
coax arrestors and know they saved one of my radios. When you bring everything to this point make sure you bond it with your electrical ground for the house to form ONE ground.

I have seen a lot of folks cut the rods short if they run into rock or some hard ground.
In this case I would advocate for placing more rods but do so at an angle. Make sure they
are all bonded together and brought to the same single point of entry.

Yes the rods and wires are low cost but don't scrimp on the arrestors. If you have a 1000 dollar radio attached $35 is cheap protection.

One other thing to remember, even with all of the correct grounding you can still lose a radio if you do not disconnect it during a good local storm. This is for static build up and strikes that are in your area...NOT direct hits. Always disconnect equipment when not being used.

We used to ground all of our antennae at one club just as a safety measure and once found a cable that had been hit. Probably saved the building and definately saved the radios!

Be safe!
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LA9XSA
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Posts: 376




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« Reply #13 on: July 29, 2012, 01:22:29 PM »

3.)  Does it need to be a certain length away from the foundation of the house?
In addition to what's been said by others, the ground rods should probably be outside the drip line of your house. In other words, it should be far enough out for the rain to keep the ground wet. If you live in the desert, that might not be a concern.

I'm no expert but I've read a lot of articles on grounding. There are three types of grounds: Electrical, lightening and RF.
Electrical safety, lightning and RF yes. I'd add ESD and EMP as grounding applications that need to be considered at some sites. The demands are different, but they overlap to some degree. For example, a good EMP ground system is often good a good lightning ground system, but a system that handles lightning well could actually make EMP pick-up worse than no ground system. A good ESD ground is bonded to the rest of the safety ground system, but it should actually have some impedance to reduce the discharge current, so it comes with built-in resistors.

Add a lightening arrestor to you antenna and a ground rod (which should be connected to you home wiring ground) and you've taken care of that issue.
You might need more than one extra ground rod. It depends on how lightning prone your structure is, and the ground resistance. A tower might need to have both surface radials for RF return currents, a ground ring, and a buried radial system for lightning dissipation. The latter would be made with much heavier wire than the RF radials, and would be detuned by design.

The last is your RF ground.  Ground radials solve that if you have an unbalanced antenna.  If your using a dipole an RF ground is not needed.
Surface radials would be for a vertical antenna. For an off center/end fed antenna one could get good results with radials, counterpoise wire, or an "artificial ground" in the shack.

If you have taken care of the above then why ground your equipment?  All it does is increase the chance that your ground wire may become a radiator of RF.
If you ground your equipment and it causes RF, I suggest that your RF ground is not good enough yet, or that you need a better RF choke or balun.

For electrical safety grounding, you might not actually need a connection to Earth. You only need all conductive surfaces in reach of a human being to be connected to each other, so they're at the same potential.

In practice though, electrical safety ground is often connected to actual Earth, especially in wet rooms like kitchens and bathrooms, since copper pipe and the water itself conducts to Earth, or in concrete buildings where the concrete and rebar are connected to Earth.

I still not sure what the purpose is of grounding your equipment.
If your shack is in a room with bare concrete walls or floor, water pipes, etc. your equipment should probably be grounded to Earth for the sake of personal safety.

If your shack is on the third floor of a wood building, it might be enough to just make sure that all the equipment grounds are bonded together. This is both for your own safety, and to protect the equipment. If you connect two pieces of electronic equipment together without bonding them together with ground strap or coax first, a static discharge or stray current could start flowing in the signal cable and overload the electronics.

If you have a third floor wood building station, with a dipole, it might be better to use balanced feed line into a tuner than using coax, perhaps augmented by an artificial ground box. As long as the equipment is bonded together in the station, your RF and safety ground needs are taken care of without any connections to actual Earth. Such a station is not well protected from lightning though. The ladder line should be taken out of the house whenever not in use.

PS: Note that in the discussion above, Earth and ground are not always synonymous. For example, at UHF a cookie sheet might be a good RF ground, without being connected to Earth.
« Last Edit: July 29, 2012, 02:05:53 PM by LA9XSA » Logged
KD2CJJ
Member

Posts: 369




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« Reply #14 on: July 31, 2012, 08:34:03 AM »

Here is a question:

What about if your ham shack is on the 2nd floor.   

Which is better running a ground up to the 2nd floor directly from a ground rod to the ham shack OR grounding the equipment to a hot water pipe?  If from the ground rod does the ground wire needs to be far from the antenna COAX or can it run side by side with out an issue?

2.  For a dipole does the outer shield need to be grounded or not?
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73

Mike
KD2CJJ
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